This article examines the wave of violence against Armenian women and their response within the context of the unfolding of the “Armenian Question” during the reign of sultan Abdülhamid II. The Armenian Question consisted of multiple local, imperial, and international disputes over the status and self-administration of Ottoman Armenians. The last quarter of the nineteenth century marked a sharp increase in pogrom and state violence against Ottoman Armenians. Armenian women, particularly in the provinces, were abducted and forced into marriages by civilian perpetrators or subjected to sexual violence by gendarmes and soldiers. Many attempted to return to their communities and bring the perpetrators to justice. The article emphasizes the active role Armenian women played in using new and established methods to mobilize their communities and seek redress from imperial and foreign officials.