What were they thinking? As we consider the impact of the Nineteenth Amendment, let us abandon for a moment what we call the wisdom of hindsight and ask what the earliest advocates of woman suffrage imagined would happen once women secured the vote. Most Americans decried the mere suggestion of women’s political equality as a radical disruption of God’s and nature’s plan and warned that votes for women would set the nation on the road to ruin. But what did the first generation of suffragists—who did not, after all, live to see what the consequences of enfranchisement would be—believe woman suffrage would accomplish, and how shocked, pleased, or dismayed would they have been by the results?